Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Docomomo Tour Day 2014: Milton Ryan

Join us in San Antonio on October 11 to learn about the work of Modern Texas architect Milton Ryan.

Terrell Hills house designed by Ryan.
University Presbyterian Church.
Mark your calendars and join us for docomomo Tour Day 2014. Mid Tex Mod is pleased to partner with Nest Modern to host a tour of three Milton Ryan properties in the San Antonio area.

Milton Ryan, born in Rockport in 1904, was an architect who started his career designing neo-classical tract houses before turning to Modernism in the 1950s. Ryan is best known for his Mid-Century Modern houses in the Terrell Hills neighborhood. As his work has often been overshadowed by that of his San Antonio contemporary O'Neil Ford, our organization is excited to highlight some of Ryan's residential and institutional work.
  
We are thrilled to begin Tour Day with lectures about Milton Ryan by Stephen Fox and Jason John Paul Haskins, followed by tours showcasing three of Ryan's commissions. Below is a general schedule of the day's events. A brochure with more specific information and addresses will be provided at University Presbyterian Church. Tickets are not required, but we will be accepting donations at the door (with a $5 suggested donation).
Please email midtexasmod@gmail.com to RSVP.

Schedule

1:00 p.m. – Meet and tour University Presbyterian Church at 300 Bushnell Ave., San Antonio. (The church's parking lot is accessed from Shook Ave.)

1:30 p.m. – Lectures on Milton Ryan and his work:

The Architecture of Milton A. Ryan” by architectural historian Stephen Fox, Fellow of the Anchorage Foundation of Texas. 

“Milton Ryan and the Domestic Modern Church” by Jason John Paul Haskins, Assoc. AIA, LEED AP BD+C.

2:30 p.m.-4:30 p.m. - Tours of two Milton Ryan houses in Terrell Hills.
The houses are located on Eventide Drive. More specific information and directions will be provided at University Presbyterian Church.

5:00 p.m. - Reception at NEST Modern, 340 East Brasse Road in San Antonio, with light refreshments and wine.




Friday, September 5, 2014

MTM Inter-Continental Motors Tours and Board Meeting

The Inter-Continental Motors Building at 3303 Broadway in San Antonio. Photo by Kelly Little


Mid Tex Mod enjoyed the opportunity to tour one of San Antonio’s Modern gems during our recent board meeting:  O’Neil Ford’s Inter-Continental Motors building. Owner Glenn Huddleston opened the now vacant building to MTM while Harper Huddleston, along with his son Max, took the time to lead our group on a tour of the site.  

Harper Huddleston gave our group
a tour and history of the building.
Note the coffered concrete ceiling. 
The International-style building at 3303 Broadway was designed by San Antonio architect O’Neil Ford and his associate Howard Yong. The Intercontinental Motors company was the distributorship of Volkswagen and Porsche automobiles for a five-state area which included Texas. Constructed in 1963, this building was one of many auto dealerships that developed along Broadway’s “Automobile Row” in the early- to mid-20th century. The glass and steel portion of the building was an automobile showroom for the Volkswagen dealership, while rear and side structures served as maintenance facilities. The building was awarded a Texas Society of Architects Honor Award when it was completed, and, at its opening in 1964, was dubbed “One of the World’s Most Beautiful Dealerships” by Weathervane magazine. Volkswagon was the original owner and operator of the property from the 1960s until it was leased to Ugly Duckling Car Sales and then to Drive Time, who operated the building until their lease expired in 2003. Glenn Huddleston purchased the building in 2000/2001. 

Light fixtures characteristic Ford buildings.
Unfortunately, many of the dealerships that once lined “Automobile Row” have been lost or are threatened. The Art Moderne-style Mitchell Motors Dodge Dealership at 1130 Broadway, one of the area’s most architecturally significant buildings, was recently demolished. Cavender Cadillac at 801 Broadway has been one of the area’s last remaining active dealerships, but recently announced that they are relocating to the suburbs. Despite these losses, there is awareness of the area's history and importance within the San Antonio preservation community. The San Antonio Conservation Society included Automobile Row within as part of their Roadside Treasures: Buildings of the Automotive Era self-guided driving tour. And the Inter-Continental Motors building was the recipient of AIA San Antonio’sTwenty-Five Year Distinguished Building Award in 2012.



Original terrazzo flooring in the showroom.
Fortunately, Inter-Continental Motors is in the hands of owners who intend to preserve and adaptively reuse it. Harper Huddleston noted to our group that he grew up in an O’Neil Ford house and that Modern architecture has always been part of their family culture. Although no spe The family would generally like to turn it into a mixed use development with a combination of retail and offices; the possibility of residential has been discussed but is unlikely given the layout of the building. Harper said that he would love to see a restaurant in the main showroom but wants to ensure that the room’s character-defining features -- such as the terrazzo floors and concrete coffered ceiling -- would not be negatively impacted.  
cific plan is in the works at the moment, Harper said that they have big ideas for the building.

Board members Kelly Little, Rick Black, Caroline Wright, Stuart
Johnson, Kathy Cordova, Charles Peveto, Rick Black, and Amy Estes.
After touring Inter-Continental Motors, our board headed just down the street to the Googie-inspired Jim’s Diner for our business meeting (and maybe a few milkshakes). The biggest topic of conversation was Docomomo’s upcoming Tour Day 2014. Stay tuned for September 9 when the agenda for Mid Tex Mod’s Tour Day event, and events from our partners across the state and country, will be announced.






Thanks for organizing the tour, Stuart! And we sincerely appreciate the Huddlestons hosting our group.

Friday, August 15, 2014

Modern American Residential Architecture of the Early 20th Century

At the close of the 19th century, our country’s neighborhoods maintained a decidedly traditional feel with decades of ornate Victorian-era style homes and throwback revival styles referencing earlier Colonial, Neoclassical, Tudor, and Mission architecture.  Things changed when new and pioneering Prairie and Craftsman styles came into popularity in the early 1900s.  These styles featured low-pitched roofs, widely overhanging eaves, cornice/façade details emphasizing horizontal lines, and brawny porch supports, and were the first ‘modernist’ buildings in the sense that they were new indigenous architectural styles not based on historical precedents.  Although distinct from contemporary Victorian and revival styles in appearance, both Prairie and Craftsman houses were still partially defined by their use of decorative elements, which tied them to the Arts and Crafts movements that placed great value on the expression of craftsmanship and the manual arts.  

At the same time that Prairie and Craftsman styles were spreading en masse across the country through new suburban developments, a radical new style was emerging:  Modernism.  Inspired by modern art movements such as Cubism and industrial mechanization, the new style embraced a more stripped-down expression of building parts.  Pioneering uses of concrete instead of wood meant that traditional building structural elements were physically unnecessary and revolutionary new forms could be accomplished.


G. Crès & Cie Pavilion, International Exposition; Hiriart Tribout et Beau, arch.
(Source: 
http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/teach/century/artdeco.html)
The Modernistic styles – which include Art Deco, Art Moderne, and Streamline Moderne – were initially and most commonly used for larger commercial or public buildings.  The first well-known examples of Modernism were Eliel Saarinen’s 2nd place design for a competition to design the Chicago Tribune’s new headquarters building in 1922 (never built), and the designs featured at the 1925 International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Design Arts in Paris where architectural, furniture, and other design work was exhibited. 

Source: Wikipedia Commons
The Art Deco movement blossomed out of this exposition. It was immediately distinctive for its applied geometric ornamentation and emphasis of vertical lines.  Art Deco’s heyday was fairly short-lived, and the style quickly grew into the Moderne movement in the early 1930s.  Moderne buildings embraced curved walls and horizontal lines, and, influenced by steam ships and cars of the era, had a sleek look that implied movement.  The International Style was introduced to the United States in the 1930s as an extension of the Moderne styles developed by European architects such as Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.  The International Style eschewed meaningless ornamentation and embraced modern building materials and technologies:  namely, the use of steel skeleton construction, stronger and lighter than iron, and which could be covered by a thin skin.

The Modern styles never eclipsed the more traditional building design in American residential architecture.  This owed in part to the ease of construction of more traditional styles – with readily-available dimensioned lumber – and partly to the sentimentality of Americans in the period between the World Wars.  This feeling was stronger in the United States after World War II, when most residential architecture consisted of stripped-down versions of more traditional styles.  Elements of the International style were softened and adapted into what is generally known as Modern residential architecture across the country.  Most major examples of the Moderne and International residential styles are grouped in certain urban areas on the East and West Coasts, although houses of these styles can be found scattered throughout cities of all sizes across the country.  The houses are generally noted within the community for their unique and stylistic appearance. 


Each Modern style has certain hallmarks, known in historic preservation fields as character-defining features.


Art Deco architecture generally features smooth wall surfaces with applied ornamentation in geometric motifs. 

Source: http://www.artdecowa.org.au/artdeco.htm
Buildings have towers and projections that, along with the ornamentation, emphasize verticality. Residences generally have flat roofs with parapets, but these may also be stepped, with upper floors set back to create a stacked block appearance. Traditional Building elements, such as window and door surrounds, are still present, but are exaggerated or stylized.


Source: A Field Guide to American Houses


Moderne architecture also has smooth wall surfaces, but minimal ornamentation.  

Source: http://www.artdecowa.org.au/artdeco.htm
Traditional building elements are minimized, with the use of steel to invisibly frame window and door openings.  Windows are often set at corners as a structural trick.  Round windows mimic steamship portholes.  Glass block adds a futuristic touch.  Houses often feature a curved wall or walls.  Roofs are flat with parapet walls that have an emphasized coping.  Porch roofs have curved corners and are cantilevered with no visible means of support, or with overemphasized fin walls.  Architectural elements generally have a horizontal line, mimicking the movement of air across the building. 

Source: http://student.santarosa.edu



International style architecture removes most elements that serve no purpose other than decoration. 

Source: www.jomstyle.com
Houses are boxy, with only occasional use of curved walls.  Flat roofs have parapets with minimal or no coping or are projecting slab roofs with deep overhangs.  Design details are based on the function of materials.  Development of curtain wall structural systems allow for extensive use of glass and windows are often grouped into long rows and turn corners. 
Source: A Field Guide to American Houses